National Endangered Species Day 2022

Today, May 20, 2022, is National Endangered Species Day. Michigan is home to nearly 30 plants and animals that are listed on the federal endangered species list. MNA works to help these species recover by protecting habitat that is critical to their survival, and by educating the public about each of their crucial roles in the environment.

Learn more about one of Michigan’s rarest species below.

Poweshiek skipperling butterfly photo by Cale Nordmeyer, Minnesota Zoo.

Saving a Rare Butterfly on the Brink of Extinction

One of the rarest butterflies, the Poweshiek skipperling, is truly on the brink of extinction. Once abundant in the tall prairie grasslands and the prairie fens of several states and provinces in the upper Midwest, the tiny butterfly is now found only in a handful of sites in Manitoba and northern Oakland County, including an MNA nature sanctuary. Loss of habitat and other factors contributed to a decades-long—and now a relatively recent and rapid—population decline that has scientists scratching their heads and worried about what their disappearance may mean for other pollinators.

The globally endangered Poweshiek is now so rare that only 100 individual butterflies were counted in a 2021 census. Recovery plans—aided by an international partnership that includes MNA—call for captive breeding efforts to headstart individuals and increase survival to adulthood in order to build a reserve population that can be reintroduced to the wild. The Minnesota Zoo, John Ball Zoo in Grand Rapids, and Michigan State University’s Haddad Lab are specifically collaborating within the Poweshiek Skipperling International Partnership to annually produce more individuals for wild releases in 2022 and beyond in what is known as ex situ or “offsite” conservation.

Ensuring genetic diversity in a managed breeding population is always a concern, especially when wild populations are so low. All of the Poweshiek that are being bred through this partnership in the United States were collected from sites in northern Oakland County. As the MNA sanctuary has been isolated from those sites, a female collected with MNA’s permission from our sanctuary is making significant genetic contributions to the whole—a critical component of species survival.

Dave Pavlik from the MSU Haddad Lab moves a Poweshiek skipperling caterpillar to its host plant at the John Ball Zoo hoop house, where the captive rearing program takes place. Photo by Lauren Ross.

“The Minnesota Zoo, John Ball Zoo, and MSU Haddad Lab sincerely appreciate the permissions granted by the Michigan Nature Association to help improve the prospects for Poweshiek skipperling conservation and recovery,” says Dr. Erik Runquist, Conservation Biologist, Minnesota Zoo, one of the ex situ lead scientists.

Poweshiek P21.3, as she is scientifically known, or “Penny” by some, successfully laid eggs in the fall of 2021 after pairing with a male that was captive-reared at the Minnesota Zoo and before being safely returned to the sanctuary from which she was collected.

A Poweshiek skipperling pupa in captive rearing. Photo by Cale Nordmeyer, Minnesota Zoo.

Penny’s progeny will likely be used for further ex situ cross-breeding to enhance genetic diversity. But her story informs the path forward. To keep the Poweshiek from going extinct requires a multi-pronged conservation intervention to rebuild the population including management efforts to sustain the remaining habitat the butterfly requires, restoring other suitable habitat, and captive breeding to ensure there is a population left to reintroduce should the wild population blink out.

MNA’s contributions, and that of Penny’s, are a critical part of bringing the Poweshiek back from the brink with lessons learned for other rare species that inhabit prairie fens.

Michigan’s Landscape Architects – Beavers

The Michigan Nature Association prides itself on protecting habitat for many different species, through the conservation and stewardship at our more than 180 Nature Sanctuaries. But there are times when the needs of one species are counterproductive to the needs of another.

Historically, the American beaver was hunted—nearly to extinction—by fur trading Europeans. Their resurgence across the Midwest has been thanks to conservation efforts, not only for them but also for other species as well.

A beaver swims through a pond. Photo by Lauren Ross.

Beavers are incredible builders, able to construct lodges up to 8 feet wide and 3 feet high, using only their teeth to cut branches and logs, which must then be transported over land and water to the construction site. They are also incredibly effective dam builders—significantly affecting the flow of rivers and streams, which can then flood hundreds of acres of land, creating the ponds and lakes that they require for survival. 

Beaver dam at an MNA Nature Sanctuary. Photo by Andrew Bacon.

This keystone species are the architects of wetlands and pools in riparian ecosystems—the area between land and rivers and streams. Their damming and wetland creation is invaluable for a wide diversity of wetland birds, herptiles, and insects. Where beavers are allowed to operate in their natural capacity, there are tremendous benefits for wildlife and water quality within the riparian corridor.

However, in sensitive habitats like the prairie fens, found at a particular MNA Nature Sanctuary in Oakland County, these habitat architects can actually have a destructive effect by flooding and killing these rare plant communities and the rare species which occur within them. One of the two creeks that flow through the sanctuary has been dammed by beavers for over a decade and has enlarged the lake on the eastern side of the sanctuary. If left alone, the dams could eventually flood the fen and create an emergent marsh habitat comprised primarily of cattail, pond-lilies, and other wetland species. And though this type of habitat is common across the state, the transition in this particular location is not ideal.

Prairie fen (left) photo by Dave Cuthrell, Emergent marsh (right) photo by Joshua Cohen courtesy MNFI.

The prairie fen at this sanctuary is one of the last places on earth where the federally endangered Poweshiek skipperling makes its home. The loss of occupied prairie fen habitat at this sanctuary would have a catastrophic effect on the global population of these tiny butterflies.

After consulting with several conservation scientists about the issue, MNA conservation staff determined that the beaver activity constitutes a grave threat to the rare species found within the prairie fen, and that sanctuary management would include curtailing the flooding in order to maintain access to the sanctuary. This approach—prioritizing the needs of more rare species over more abundant ones—is commonly taken by conservation organizations at both the local and national levels.

Humans, like beavers, are capable of altering their surroundings in ways that most other species are not. Like the beaver and the butterfly which cannot know that in this place is nearly all that remains of the Poweshiek skipperling, humans too have a limited amount of knowledge to guide our activities. It is, however, with conscientious and scientific thought. Nature forces us to make some very difficult decisions at times—so as we work to protect Michigan nature for everyone, we must also recognize when one species requires more of our efforts than another.

Bringing Michigan Nature to Your Home

In early 2021, MNA launched a new series of events exploring the rich natural history of Michigan. The “Michigan Nature at Home” virtual speaker series hosts experts from around the state who share topics with viewers including historic inventions inspired by the state’s unique natural features, how research helps us be better stewards of the land, tips and experiences in creating artistic conservation images, and more.

Presenters have included Michigan Notable Author James McCommons speaking about his recent biography of George Shiras III, who paved the way for modern-day trail cameras in the woods of Michigan’s Upper Peninsula. Michigan Technological University Research Professor, Dr. Rolf Peterson, provided valuable insight into the research being conducted on the relationship between Isle Royale’s wolves and moose in the world’s longest-running predator-prey study. We also heard from wildlife photographers Greg Bodker and Josh Haas, who each provided valuable tips for creating better photos while respecting the needs of wildlife. A Michigan Natural Features Inventory ecologist, Jesse Lincoln, delighted our audience with stories of how his conservation work is enhanced and informed by art, and award-winning filmmakers Chris Zuker and Jason Whalen gave viewers a sneak peek of a few films they have been creating for MNA.

These presentations have helped us reach a broad audience, beyond the borders of the state, inspiring people to care about and experience Michigan’s incredible nature from home. We look forward to providing continued informative programming in the coming months as the Michigan Nature at Home series continues.

Beginning in February 2022, get an in-depth look at some of our most diverse sanctuaries with the experts who know them best—our conservation field staff. View recordings of past presentations and register for newly announced events at michigannature.org.

Sanctuary Spotlight: Thornapple Lake

Thornapple Lake Nature Sanctuary is one of MNA’s many inland-lake sanctuaries, protecting roughly 60 acres of lakeshore where the Thornapple River enters the Thornapple Lake in Barry County. The densely forested sanctuary would be a tempting destination for hiking and exploration if not for the wet terrain making trails impractical. This type of habitat, which floods every spring, is known as a floodplain forest.

The low banks along the Thornapple River allow for the natural fluctuations in water levels.

The Thornapple River, a major tributary of the Grand River which drains into Lake Michigan, travels nearly 90 miles through primarily agricultural land, and is disrupted at several points by man-made dams built to control its frequent flooding. From the tributary east of Charlotte until it joins Thornapple Lake the river flows freely, though with the appearance of a creek.

This floodplain forest area is therefore an important part of the landscape. Floodplain forests serve an important role in increasing natural water quality as pollutants get filtered out of the floodwaters through the soil. They also provide critical habitat for several rare birds, such as Baltimore Oriole, Cerulean Warbler and American Woodcock. The saturated soils of floodplain forests thaw earlier in the spring than surrounding soils, creating critical opportunities for early migratory birds to find food on their way to summer breeding grounds.

A great blue heron hunts along the shoreline at Thornapple Lake Nature Sanctuary.

The area around Thornapple Lake, however, has become heavily developed over the years with waterfront homes and neighborhoods which intersect the shoreline. The development impacts the ability of waterfowl and other species to use the lake for feeding and breeding. Concerned with the overdevelopment of the lakeshore, Richard and Rosemary Shuster donated the land that has become Thornapple Lake Nature Sanctuary in 2009.

Many of MNA’s Nature Sanctuaries are known for being incredible destinations for hiking with spectacular overlooks, abundant spring wildflowers, and more. But sanctuaries like Thornapple Lake are a reminder that prioritizing the protection of Michigan’s rich natural heritage for wildlife and not just human enjoyment, is just as worthwhile.