Happy National Pollinator Week

By Eugene Kutz, MNA Intern

This year, the Michigan Nature Association is recognizing one decade of National Pollinator Week, put into place by the U.S. Senate to recognize the critical role pollinators have in ecosystem health and agriculture, and to recognize “the value of partnership efforts to increase awareness about pollinators and support for protecting and sustaining pollinators.”

pollinator weekThe U.S. Department of Agriculture and the U.S. Department of the Interior have designated June 19-25 as National Pollinator Week in 2017 ─ a statement on how critical pollinators are to food production and ecosystems.

National Pollinator Week is a time to share the news about the need for healthy pollinator populations (bees, birds, butterflies, bats and beetles) and what can be done to protect them. This important awareness week addresses the devastating effects that declining pollinator populations will continue to have on agriculture and ecosystems that we all rely on.

The National Pollinator Week is now celebrated and recognized by countries across the globe, where many are celebrating healthy ecosystems and the services provided by pollinators and their positive effect on all of our lives, from supporting wildlife to keeping watersheds healthy.

For more information, visit The Pollinator Partnership, the largest non-profit dedicated exclusively to promoting the health of pollinators through conservation, education, and research.

To see a list of events taking place in Michigan this week, check out http://www.pollinator.org/pollinatorweek/events#Michigan:

Michigan BeePalooza 2017 bumble
6/18/2017, 1:00 PM
1066 Bogue Street East Lansing, 48824
“A fun afternoon event on Father’s Day at the MSU Demonstration Gardens in East Lansing, with interactive educational displays about the Bees of Michigan, beekeeping, bee conservation for homeowners, bumble bee ecology, face painting, and more!”
https://www.facebook.com/events/712867558881877 ; http://www.beepalooza.org

Pollinator Day 2017
6/24/2017, 12:00 PM
34051 Ryan Road, Sterling Heights, 48310
“Eckert’s Greenhouse is hosting an Annual Pollinator Day! Go to three different stations to learn about the importance of Butterflies, Bees, Birds and Bats! Let us help you make a friendly pollinator garden from our wide variety of annuals and perennials.” http://www.eckertsgreenhouse.com/specials–events.html

Free Seminar: Create A Garden To Attract Pollinators
6/24/2017, 10:00 AM
English Gardens, West Bloomfield, 48322
“Our experts will share tips on creating a garden that pollinators will love to call home.” http://www.englishgardens.com/events/create-a-garden-to-attract-pollinators/
Contact information: ewinger@englishgardens.com

Stewardship Workday At Bluffs Nature Area
6/24/2017 9:00 AM
222 Sunset Rd, Ann Arbor, 48103
“Bluffs Nature Area offers trails for bikers, walkers and runners along with interesting views of the river and a small hidden prairie. Volunteers are needed to pull invasive plants that provide little food for wildlife and crowd out native wildflowers.”
www.a2gov.org/NAP; 734.794.6627; NAP@a2gov.org

For a complete look at all National Pollinator Week events in the U.S. this week take a look at this map: http://pollinator.org/npw_events.htm.

 

 

Go Birding on MNA Sanctuaries

By Michelle Ferrell, MNA Intern

Bust out your binoculars and bring your field guides! Spring is one of the best times to observe the abundance of birds to be found in MNA sanctuaries, including vast raptor migrations in the Upper Peninsula and the nesting habitats of hummingbirds, woodpeckers, warblers and finches throughout the rest of the state. Below is a list of several such sanctuaries noted to be particularly good destinations for spring birding starting in the Keweenaw and moving down to the Indiana/Ohio border.

Many more opportunities are to be found, however, so we encourage you to check out our list of other MNA sanctuaries specially selected for their seasonal offerings to those looking to enjoy the great outdoors.

 

Keweenaw Peninsula – U.P.

James H. Klipfel Memorial Nature Sanctuary

Keweenaw County

The drive along the mountain ridge top is often proclaimed to have the most outstanding scenery and provide the most dramatic in Michigan. A short 0.75 mile loop trail offers a breathtaking view of Lake Superior.

The outlook also provides an extraordinary opportunity to bird watch during their spring migration. Tens of thousands of hawks, eagles, vultures, falcons and other soaring birds funnel north onto narrowing landmasses, including the Keweenaw Peninsula.

Juvenile_Cooper's_hawk_(Accipiter_cooperii) Alan Vernon permission granted

Juvenile Cooper’s hawk. Photo: Alan Vernon.


Keweenaw Shores No 1 Nature Sanctuary

Keweenaw County

Along the shore of Lake Superior, there is a spectacular array of rocks covered with colorful lichens ranging from pink to orange, yellow and green. A natural cove along the shore is one of the few places in Michigan where it is possible to see both a sunrise and sunset without visual distraction.

In late spring, the showy white blossoms of the serviceberry, the earliest blooming shrub in the Keweenaw, greets the hiker. The trail winds over several ridges of Copper Harbor Conglomerate and traverses four different plant communities.

Many bird species, including ruby-throated hummingbirds, boreal chickadees and American redstarts build their nests in the lichens.

The rocks of the northern shore are more than 1 billion years old.

The best time to visit the sanctuary is in the spring during migration.

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Boreal chickadee. Photo: Claude Nadeau.


John J. Helstrom Nature Sanctuary

Keweenaw County

The John J. Helstrom Nature Sanctuary is located high along Brockway Mountain Drive; in fact, 3/8 mile of the scenic drive passes through the sanctuary. It is located just east of MNA’s Klipfel Memorial Nature Sanctuary.

Heart-leaved arnica, an endangered Michigan species, thrives in the dry, alkaline conditions.

This overlook provides an extraordinary opportunity to watch hawks and other birds during their spring migration. The birds use thermal updrafts created by topography and rising warm air. Thousands of raptors, owls, and other birds use this method of flying.

northern goshawk by kirk zulfelt

Northern goshawk. Photo: Kirk Zulfelt.


Estivant Pines Nature Sanctuary

Keweenaw County

Two loop trails bring visitors through the towering pines and forest. The 1 mile Cathedral Grove loop passes some of the largest and oldest giant white pines, growing more than 125 feet tall and dating back 300 years. The two trails intersect and can be completed as a 2.5 mile hike.

More than 85 bird species inhabit the old-growth forest, including woodpeckers, hawks, and red crossbills. Despite thin soil and boreal climate, several wildflowers grow, such as asters, clintonia, baneberry, and violets.

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Red crossbill. Photo: gbmcclure.

Redwyn’s Dunes Nature Sanctuary

Keweenaw County

The 36.37 acre sanctuary is located on Keweenaw County’s Great Sand Bay. The shoreline of Great Sand Bay receives the full force of the strong prevailing westerly winds off Lake Superior and the shoreline has sand dunes up to 100 feet in height above the shoreline.

The back inner dunes are vegetated by juniper clones as large as 15 square feet, and by wind-contorted red pines and aspen.

The sanctuary is a favorite resting spot for the migrating waterfowl in the wetlands along the back dunes. Beavers, killdeer and songbirds are also present among the varied plant life.

A one-mile trail passes interdunal ponds and leads down to the Lake Superior shoreline where feldspar pebbles are often found. In the winter, the trail can be used for cross-country skiing.

The gently rolling topography provides a pleasant hike for visitors of all ages during any time of the year.

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Purple finch. Photo: Robert Royse.

Upper Peninsula (outside of the Keweenaw)


Braastad Nature Sanctuary

Marquette County

Located in the north-central Upper Peninsula, the 238-acre Braastad Nature Sanctuary contains amazing diversity in landscape. Part of the sanctuary features an old bog, with other parts forested. There is even an old lakebed filled with leatherleaf.

Throughout, deer and songbirds are plentiful. You may even see an occasional black bear.

A number of orchids, trailing arbutus and gentians call this place home as well.

Image result for Black-backed woodpecker. Photo: Greg Schneider

Black-backed woodpecker. Photo: Greg Schneider.


Fred Dye Nature Sanctuary

Mackinac County

The 36-acre sanctuary has no trails, but is easily navigable due to its openness. The prairie seems somewhat out of place in the Upper Peninsula, and it is suspected to be a result of human activity. The dolomite bedrock and karst features scattered throughout the sanctuary contribute to the grass-dominated, open habitat. The shallow, exposed bedrock and thin soils make it difficult for hardwood forests to fully develop. The karst features found in the sanctuary today may eventually turn into caves or sinkholes after centuries because of the eroding bedrock.

Many bird species can be found year-round at Fred Dye. Visitors can see many breeding and migratory birds in the summer, as they thrive in the sanctuary’s prairie habitat. Ruby-throated hummingbirds can be seen around the wildflowers.

The diversity of plant species at Fred Dye result in different sets of wildflowers blooming through all points of the growing season. In the spring, visitors are welcomed by round-lobed hepatica and wild columbine. In summer, pale purple coneflower, prairie cinquefoil, and toadflax are in bloom. The fall brings leathery grape fern, pale spike lobelia, and fringed gentian.

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Ruby-throated hummingbird. Photo: J.S. Jourdan.


Pat Grogan Shelldrake Nature Sanctuary

Chippewa County

Located about six miles northwest off Paradise of Vermillion Road, this sanctuary is home to numerous plant species, including pink moccasin flower, pitcher plants, small cranberry, and sundew.

A lucky visitor can also see sandhill cranes, gray jays, pine martins and American bittern.

Ancient lake levels created this beach bar, providing a narrow spit of pine-covered sand for the trail.

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Sandhill crane. Photo: MNA Archives.

Northern Lower Peninsula

Julius C. and Marie Moran Peter Memorial Nature Sanctuary

Alpena County

The Peter Memorial Nature Sanctuary is wild and remote. Those who walk on the old path to Grass Lake encounter many interesting plants, such as purple flowering raspberry, buffalo berry, columbine, and spurred gentians. In early June, the dwarf lake iris grows four to six inches tall, while the bird’s eye primrose flowers bloom beautifully. Both prefer this sanctuary’s alkaline soil.

The Grass Lake edge fluctuates from year to year and is home to sedges, pitcher plant, false asphodel, arrow grass, and sweet gale. The open sections are ideal for bird watching, as the lakeshore is home to ducks, shorebirds, hawks and warblers.

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Black-throated green warbler. Photo: Matthew Studebaker.

Southeast Michigan

Sharon Zahrfeld Memorial Nature Sanctuary

Genesee County

Rolling hills and wetlands make it an attractive spot for songbirds. There is a nature trail that runs through the sanctuary, giving visitors spectacular views of the forest and creek.

The lower areas of the sanctuary are seasonally wet and include ephemeral ponds and Save It Creek. The sanctuary is in the Shiawassee River watershed, with the creek eventually joining the Shiawassee River and then the Saginaw River. The southern half of the Shiawassee River basin, where the sanctuary is located, consists of alternating east-west fine or medium-textured ground moraines, till plains and outwash plains.

The seasonal variation of the creek’s water level plays a vital role in this southern floodplain forest community, which is one of Michigan’s most endangered habitats. The sanctuary’s several wetlands make it an attractive spot for songbirds and other wildlife.

Skunk cabbage, scarlet oak and the Michigan lily are a few of the species that call Zahrfeld Memorial Nature Sanctuary home. Spring visitors are greeted with a diverse wildflower display, including beautiful marsh marigolds.

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Black-capped chickadee. Photo: Rodney Campbell.


Elmer and Irene Jasper Woods Memorial Nature Sanctuary

St. Clair County

Red, white, and painted trillium all occur in Jasper Woods, each blooming at slightly different times of the season and in different habitats. Red trillium is earliest and can be found in the forest’s rich wet deciduous woods. It typically blooms in early May, depending upon spring weather conditions. White trillium begins to bloom a few days later and appears in drier woodlands, especially on the west side of the sand trail that ends at a private gate. Painted trillium appears latest, from mid- to late May.

Some of the sanctuary’s early flowering plants include wood anemone, blue cohosh, and saprophytes such Indian pipes.

Jasper Woods is an excellent place for bird watching and provides habitat for many species of nesting birds, including the wood duck, rose-breasted grosbeak, ruby-throated hummingbird and black-throated green warbler.

Jasper Woods has a short trail, but visitors are free to explore the sanctuary at their leisure.

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Rose-breasted grosbeak. Photo: Brian E. Small.


Goose Creek Grasslands Nature Sanctuary

Lenawee County

Over 200 plant species have been identified at Goose Creek Grasslands, including seven types that are classified as rare. Sedges and rushes are found among many fen plants, including buckbean and pitcher plant. Aquatic plants, such as pickerelweed and pondweeds, take advantage of the wet prairie, along with various types of goldenrods and asters. Adding color to the landscape are Goose Creek’s dozens of prairie flowers, including culver’s root, Indian paintbrush, sunflowers and Joe-Pye weed.

Goose Creek Grasslands is also an excellent location for bird watching. Sound carries well across the flat landscape, and visitors may hear the calls of sandhill cranes, yellow warblers and willow flycatchers. Hawks are regularly observed in the skies, with eastern meadowlarks, common yellowthroat and red-winged blackbirds below.

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Red-winged blackbird. Photo: G. Lasley.


Anna Wilcox and Harold Warnes Memorial Nature Sanctuary

Macomb County

One mile of trail takes visitors through a forest that supports an array of trees and wildflowers. Massive tulip trees and bottle gentian highlight the diversity of vegetative species present within the sanctuary.

The clear stream that runs through the southern part of the forest is also home to inhabitants of the sanctuary; the brightly colored Laura’s clubtail dragonfly is one of the species that relies on the high-quality water that the stream provides. The monkeyflower, which requires moist soil or even shallow water, also thrive in the marsh habitat.

Many wild turkeys and the occasional great horned owl are seen throughout the sanctuary. Visitors with a keen eye may be able to spot warblers and finches.

The abundance of large tulip trees highlights the incredible habitat and wildlife diversity of Wilcox Warnes Memorial Nature Sanctuary.

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Great horned owl. Photo: Ellen Hodges.


Timberland Swamp Nature Sanctuary

Oakland County

Timberland Swamp Nature Sanctuary is the Michigan Nature Association’s largest sanctuary in southeast Michigan.

Visitors can get a firsthand look at the hardwood swamp and second-growth hardwood forest on the two-mile loop trail. The path is often swampy and wet, so it is recommended to bring proper footwear and stay on the trail. Despite recent impacts to the understory due to a high deer population, numerous wildflowers, including trillium, maiden-hair fern, and wild geranium are present. Acadian flycatcher, scarlet tanager, and red-eyed vireo are found throughout the swamp in the spring and summer.

The habitats of swamp and forest provide an ideal environment for birds, mammals, and amphibians. The great blue heron, great horned owls, and several species of hawks call the canopy of Timberland Swamp home.

With its diverse habitat and incredible beauty, visitors will get a true glimpse into the past when they visit Timberland Swamp.

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Blue heron. Photo: Mike Baird.

 

Southwest Michigan

Dowagiac Woods Nature Sanctuary

Cass County

The 384-acre Dowagiac Woods Nature Sanctuary is considered a “crown jewel” of MNA’s sanctuaries.

The easily navigable 1.5 mile loop trail allows visitors to observe all the sights and sounds Dowagiac Woods has to offer. The path is complete with boardwalks over seasonally wet areas, as well as benches for visitors to relax and take in the beauty.

The larger size of the property is essential in maintaining the diversity of plant and animal life found here. A mixed matrix of floodplain, southern-mesic forest, and hardwood swamp allows for nearly 50 species of nesting birds and several reptiles, such as the black rat snake. Along with nesting birds like the barred owl and yellow-throated warbler, neo-tropical migrants use the river and forest habitat.

Spring in Dowagiac Woods offers an incredible wildflower display. More than 50 species of wildflowers carpet the forest floor, including the blue-eyed Mary, trillium, and dutchman’s breeches.

Both first-time guests and regular visitors to Dowagiac Woods will continue to find new discoveries in its impressive diversity.

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Yellow-throated warbler. Photo: Zak Pohlen.


Lawrence and Mary Bell Wade Memorial Nature Sanctuary

Allegan County

Wade Memorial is a fine example of a mesic-northern compound mix of deciduous trees with scattered hemlocks. The trails are flat and easy to navigate, consisting of a bisected rectangular loop, creating two square-shaped trails that total about one mile. The sanctuary is well-suited to the study of both terrestrial and aquatic plants. Flowering dogwood and trillium can be found in the wooded areas during the spring, while pickerelweed and bur-reed inhabit the shore and lake.

Waterfowl and other birds are a common sight throughout the sanctuary. Wood ducks, hawks, owls, and woodpeckers all inhabit the canopy and shoreline of Wade Memorial. Along with birds, various species of frogs and turtles also call the sanctuary home. Visitors are welcomed by an assortment of plant life, including skunk cabbage, marsh marigold, jack-in-the-pulpit, hepatica, blue flag iris, trailing arbutus, and dogwood, among others.

The beautiful lake views and varied plant life make Wade Memorial a destination for visitors looking to experience nature.

Image result for Red-bellied woodpecker. Photo: Ken Thomas.

Red-bellied woodpecker. Photo: Ken Thomas.


Newaygo Prairie Nature Sanctuary

Newaygo County

Prairies are one of the most endangered habitats in the state because many owners converted open acres to farmland in the 19th and 20th centuries.

Despite its size, Newaygo Prairie Nature Sanctuary has no trails. However, the open landscape makes it easy for visitors to navigate and explore.

More than 100 prairie species survive here, including the porcupine grass, June grass, and Fall Witch grass. Prairie ragwort, rock spikemoss, goat’s rue, sand cherry, and prickly-pear cactus also contribute to the variety of plants.

Several species of birds rely on the open habitat at Newaygo Prairie for nesting and foraging. Bluebirds and grasshopper sparrows nest in the open areas of the prairie, while eastern towhees prefer the shaded areas near the wooded edges.

Image result for bluebird. Photo: Philip Schwarz.

Eastern bluebird. Photo: Philip Schwarz.


White Pigeon River Nature Sanctuary

St. Joseph County

Located just three miles southwest of White Pigeon off Burke Rd, White Pigeon River is a great place to go for a quick walk or spend all day. The sanctuary is home to more than 50 species of birds, snapping turtles, lizard’s tail, huge clumps of silver maple, green dragon, wild cucumber, and moonseed. The sanctuary contains floodplain forest with dry upland forest.

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Cerulean warbler. Photo: Wikimedia Commons.

Endangered Species Day – A Celebration of Species Protection and a Day of Action

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By Eugene Kutz, MNA Intern

An exciting day for species conservation, the 12th annual Endangered Species Day is today, May 19. This day provides an opportunity for people to learn everyday actions they can take to help protect our nation’s endangered species. Today will facilitate recognition of the extensive efforts currently in place to protect our nation’s endangered and threatened species and their habitats.

Michigan is home to fourteen endangered and twelve threatened species, comprised of eight plant species (seven threatened, one endangered) and nineteen animals (six threatened, thirteen endangered). Of these lists, two species, the piping plover and the Poweshiek skipperling, have been designated with habitats in critical condition. For a list of all Michigan Federally-listed Threatened, Endangered, Proposed, and Candidate Species, follow the link to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Services: https://www.fws.gov/midwest/endangered/lists/michigan-spp.html

Spearheaded by the National Wildlife Federation, the Endangered Species Day was established in 2006 after the United States Senate unanimously passed a resolution designating a day to encourage the public to become educated about, and aware of, the current threats to species and the success stories in species recovery.

Plants and animals near extinction were first provided security in the Endangered Species Act, signed into law by Congress in 1973. In a conservation win, only 9 of out of 1,800 species listed as endangered were declared extinct since the implementation of the Act. Having paved the road for the Endangered Species Day, the Act declared the importance of protecting endangered species and containing extinction prevention for hundreds of species, including the bald eagle, grizzly bear and the Florida panther.

Now Endangered Species Day is recognized across the nation and in events at schools, libraries, museums, zoos, aquariums, botanical gardens, businesses and community groups alike. It also provides the opportunity for promoting all worldwide species conservation efforts.

Butterfly Run logoThis Saturday, May 20, join the Michigan Nature Association for its third annual Karner Blue Butterfly Family Fun Run & 5K at Millennium Park in Grand Rapids, as part of the Race for Michigan Nature, a statewide series of Family Fun Runs & 5Ks stretching from Belle Isle in Detroit to Marquette in the U.P.

Each race spotlights one of Michigan’s rarest species and helps promote the importance of protecting Michigan’s remaining natural areas. This event will help raise awareness for endangered species and habitat conservation efforts. Sign up at https://runsignup.com/Race/MI/Walker/KarnerBlueButterflyRun.

Eradicating Invasive Phragmites

By Kary Askew Garcia, MNA Intern

Seedheads near water. Photo via MNA archives.

Seedheads near water. Photo via MNA archives.

A straw-like plant ranging from 6-13 feet in height may seem quite harmless to come across. Yet, this plant, known as Phragmites, is an invasive species threatening the natural flora of Michigan.

Phragmites is the most common invasive plant species in Michigan.

Phragmites has a tall stalk with blades along its shaft and a red-colored seedhead that can fade to a straw-like color with age. Phragmites is usually found in wetland habitats like marshes and swamps.

This invasive species poses alarming impacts on biodiversity because it grows tall and in dense stands, squelching out any native plant and animal life by blocking sunlight and taking up space. Animals find it difficult to make habitats because of the density of the stands and find they have reduced vegetation to eat.

A thick Phragmites stand. Photo via MNA archives.

A thick Phragmites stand. Photo via MNA archives.

Phragmites obstructs views and can make it difficult for people to enjoy nature because of the difficulty of traveling through the thick reeds to get to bodies of water. It also can negatively affect navigation on highways and waterways because of its height.  Phragmites has a rapid growth rate and are prone to catching and spreading fires quickly, killing natural vegetation around it and posing threat to homes and buildings nearby.

Learn how to identify invasive species like Phragmites by clicking here.

Two methods of eliminating invasive Phragmites are prescribed burns and the use of herbicides. Prescribed burns are controlled fires that kill the invasive species, allowing a chance for native vegetation to grow. Herbicides must always be used carefully and some areas even require permits before use. Mowing is recommended post-chemical treatment.

Uprooting invasive knapweed

By Kary Askew Garcia, MNA Intern

A moth rests atop a knapweed flower. Photo courtesy of MNA archives.

A moth rests atop a knapweed flower. Photo courtesy of MNA archives

MNA is hosting several stewardship events this summer to remove the invasive knapweed plant from various sanctuaries.

The invasion of knapweed poses a danger to native plant life and must be uprooted. The knapweed’s origins are traced back to southeastern Europe. The plant begins to grow as a rosette of leaves in its first year of life and then later on grows a flower stalk ranging from six to 36 inches in height. The flower is usually pink or purple in color with a spotted head underneath, as knapweed is also referred to as “spotted knapweed.”

Knapweed can be found in well-drained soils, dry prairies and dunes. Knapweed is especially harmful to oak barrens, which are endangered worldwide.

The weed’s invasion has caused a decline in native plant species, which is threatening to the ecosystem. It can also alter water quality by causing an increase in soil runoff and erosion.

Spotted knapweed growing on dry terrain. MNA archives.

Spotted knapweed growing on dry terrain. Photo courtesy of MNA archives

Two common ways of eliminating knapweed are simply pulling the plants or mowing them down. There are also herbicides and chemicals that can also be used for removal but have several regulations and must be used carefully as to not upset any other plant or wildlife.

Two different insects have also been introduced to inhibit the knapweed from spreading seeds: flower weevils and seedhead flies. These insects introduced to the knapweed are a form of biological control of the invasive species.

Of these methods, MNA has most commonly uprooted the weed. Uprooting sounds much easier than it is, involving tools to help pull as many of the knapweed’s roots out of the soil as possible. If left behind, the roots could help the weed grow again and damage native plant life.

The knapweed has a tendency to knock out all other vegetation surrounding it, making many ecosystems bare if it isn’t removed.

MNA has also used prescribed burns and herbicide to remove larger amounts of knapweed in sanctuaries. Simply pulling knapweed when it is extremely abundant wouldn’t prove effective; burns and chemicals have helped to reduce the occurrence of the plant.

For more information on spotted knapweed, see Michigan State University’s Agriculture and Natural Resources website here.

Volunteers and stewards help pick knapweed at an MNA nature sanctuary. Photo courtesy of MNA archives

Volunteers and stewards help pick knapweed at an MNA nature sanctuary. Photo courtesy of MNA archives

MNA is calling for volunteers to help pull spotted knapweed from different sanctuaries. The next pull will be hosted at the Calla Burr Nature Sanctuary in Oakland County on July 10 from 9 a.m. to 1 p.m.

More upcoming knapweed removal events:

  •  July 22: Volunteer Day: Lefglen Nature Sanctuary in Jackson County. 9 a.m. – 1 p.m.
  • July 25: Spotted Knapweed Pull at Calla Burr in Oakland County. Begins 9 a.m.
  • July 26: Spotted Knapweed Pull at Keweenaw Shores II Plant Preserve in Keweenaw County with Nancy Leonard. Begins 11 a.m.
  • August 9: Hike & Volunteer day: Redwyn’s Dunes in Keweenaw County. Begins 11 a.m.

Please contact the MNA office for more information about volunteering and preserving Michigan’s nature.

The Effects of Invasive Garlic Mustard

By Alyssa Kobylarek, MNA intern

Garlic mustard flowers appear after the second year. Photo via MNA archives.

Garlic mustard flowers appear after the second year. Photo via MNA archives.

At first glance, garlic mustard looks like any other native flower. It has tiny, white flowers that sit atop a bed of green leaves along the forest floor. Passersby may not realize that this plant is one of the worst invaders of forests in the American Northeast and Midwest that was brought to America for food and medicinal uses from Europe and Asia in the 1800s.

Garlic mustard is an invasive herb that has spread throughout much of the United States over the past century. It can be identified as young plants by the garlic odor that is released when the leaves are crushed. The flowers develop on an unbranched stalk and they have four small white petals in a symmetrical arrangement.

Garlic mustard is usually found in undergrowth of disturbed woodlots and forest edges. It spreads fast and easily dominates the undergrowth of some forests, pushing native plants back and reducing diversity among native species. Garlic mustard can form in a dense blanket on the understory. This can kill off native plants that grow there because it controls the light, water and nutrients that are available. Plants most affected by garlic mustard are herbaceous species that grow in similar moist soil in the spring and early summer.

Garlic Mustard at Rizor Nature Sanctuary. Photo by Natalie Kent- Norkowski

Garlic mustard grows in dense clusters and has the potential to cover the forest floor. Photo via MNA archives.

Garlic mustard has been tied to the decrease in native herbaceous species in forested areas. It also releases chemicals that hinder the growth of other plant species and inhibits the growth of grasses and herbs. Other areas of the ecosystem could be affected due to the change in the vegetation. Altering the plant diversity can change leaf litter availability for creatures that survive in them, insects could be affected due to the loss in diversity of egg-laying substrate and plants, and it could prevent tree seedlings from growing.

Deer and other herbivores eat the garlic mustard, but they only remove about two percent of the leaf area. Manual removal of the plant is an effective method for eliminating the species and preventing it from spreading. Many volunteer days at MNA this spring are dedicated to helping remove and prevent garlic mustard in MNA sanctuaries. Take a look at some upcoming dates to get involved and visit www.michigannature.org/events for more dates and information!

  • Wednesday, April 30: Join MNA at the Riley-Shurte Nature Sanctuary (Cass County, near Cassopolis) to help keep the woods free of garlic mustard.
  • Friday, May 2: Help pull garlic mustard in the forest at Lyle and Mary Rizor Nature Sanctuary (Livingston County, near Hartland).
  • Saturday, May 3: Join volunteers to pull garlic mustard in the wooded paradise at Powell Memorial Nature Sanctuary (Lenawee County, near Hudson).
  • Monday, May 5: MNA will host a garlic mustard pull at the popular Dowagiac Woods Nature Sanctuary (Cass County, near Dowagiac).
  • Monday, May 5: Enjoy the beautiful woods, Wolf Creek, and spring wildflowers as we pull garlic mustard at Frances Broehl Memorial No. 1 (Lenawee County, near Onsted).

How Will This Harsh Winter Affect Wildlife?

By Alyssa Kobylarek, MNA  intern

The polar vortex may be finally past us, but cold temperatures are still prevalent throughout Michigan. We all know it made for a miserable winter for us, but how was wildlife affected?

Karner Blue Butterfly

The Karner blue butterfly lays it’s eggs near the ground so the snow can help insulate them through the winter. Photo from MNA Archives.

Many wildlife species are well adapted to thrive in cold temperatures. This winter proved to be beneficial for some endangered species here in Michigan. The Karner blue butterfly will hopefully see a spike in population from the excessive amounts of snow this winter brought. The butterfly’s eggs, which are laid on leaf litter near the ground over the winter, do best when there is deep snow cover on the ground over the course of the entire winter. The snow keeps them from drying out and provides extra insulation from air temperatures which can be colder than the ground temperatures.

Cisco fish are another endangered species that will benefit from the cold. They lay their eggs under the ice of the Great Lakes which protects them from getting thrashed around too much by waves. When there is little to no ice coverage, the waves cause the eggs to break. The heavy and vast ice coverage that the Great Lakes has had this winter will help provide a great barrier for the eggs and hopefully lead to more of them surviving.

When temperatures get cold, honeybees cluster and vibrate their wings to create heat. Photo courtesy of Wikimedia Commons

When temperatures get cold, honeybees cluster and vibrate their wings to create heat. Photo courtesy of Wikimedia Commons

Honeybees continue to thrive in the hive during extreme cold streaks. They gather in massive amounts to form a dense cluster around the outside of the hive when the temperature drops. As it gets colder, the cluster of bees becomes tighter and they move closer inside the hive. In order to stay warm and keep the queen warm, they exercise by rapidly vibrating their wings. It also creates air currents that expel carbon dioxide and moisture.

Not every species benefits from the extreme cold. Many invasive species are unable to handle the sub zero temperatures. Although it is unfortunate for the insects, it is good news for the plants affected by them and it could help solve issues with some invasive species in Michigan.

The emerald ash borer larvae can withstand temperatures as low as negative 20 degrees. Photo courtesy of Wikimedia Commons

The emerald ash borer larvae can withstand temperatures as low as negative 20 degrees. Photo courtesy of Wikimedia Commons

Temperatures were cold enough in certain areas to freeze and kill many invasive species, such as the emerald ash borer. They are able to withstand several degrees below zero, but if temperatures hit 20 or 30 degrees below zero, they may not be able to survive.

Other invasive species do not fair as well as the emerald ash borer. The gypsy moth begins to freeze when temperatures hit below 17 degrees and the wooly adelgis, which has killed thousands of hemlock trees in the Northwest, dies when temperatures fall just below zero.