Mammals in the Great Lakes State

By Eugene Kutz, MNA Intern

The Michigan Nature Association is recognizing 2017’s Michigan Mammals Week July 10-16 and wishes to highlight some of our favorite species living in the Great Lakes State.

Take a quick inventory and marvel at Michigan’s various mammals, from bats to bears! Summer is a great time to plan outdoor adventures in the state of Michigan and one of the best times to observe the abundance of mammals found at MNA sanctuaries! Will you encounter a great Michigan mammal this summer?

We encourage you to check out our list of MNA sanctuaries specially selected for their seasonal offerings to those looking to enjoy opportunities in Michigan’s great outdoors.

 

MICHIGAN BATS

Bat are as misunderstood as they are intriguing. They are the only mammals capable of sustained flight. A bat’s wing is unique because unlike wings of birds and insects, it’s actually skin stretched over long, thin fingers which can connect the arms and legs and even the tail.

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Michigan bat.  Photo: Bat Specialists of Michigan.

Adapted to flying at night, bats can navigate in total darkness, famous for their use of echolocation. By creating high-frequency sound pulses that bounce off nearby objects, bats use the returning echoes to determine an object’s size, shape and distance. This technique all but gives away the location of prey while guiding bats’ aerial movements.

Michigan bats diet consists of a variety of moths, flies, beetles and other insects, and can capture up to 1,000 mosquito-sized insects per hour. Bats mostly live in forests that are situated near water, where insects thrive.

In winter months, bats have adapted to hibernate due to the lack of insects to hunt. Although some bats migrate to warmer regions, many can hibernate in the numerous caves and mines throughout Michigan.

More info: http://www.michigan.gov/dnr/0,4570,7-153-10370_12145_12205-70016–,00.html

Explore the bats native to Michigan:


MICHIGAN BLACK BEARS

The only species of bear found in Michigan─the black bear─is mostly found in western North America. The black bear moniker is mostly deserved, with most sporting black or dark brown fur, but the black bear’s fur can actually vary from browns and blondes to gray-blues.

On all fours, adults reach nearly three feet tall, spanning 3-5 feet in length. Adult females average smaller than males, weighing up to 300 pounds with adult males weighing up to 500 pounds! Adult males and females share company during breeding seasons, but are otherwise solitary creatures after mothers have reared their cubs.

During their seasonal retirement, Michigan black bears drop their body temperature by just a few degrees, and because of this are not true hibernators, as a hibernating animal’s body temperature will level with the temperature of its environment. For this reason, bears can be awakened easily during their denning period and will flee right away when feeling threatened.

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Michigan black bear. Photo: James A. Galletto.

They typically enter their dens in December, emerging in early-to mid-spring. Dens are made in rock cavities, root masses, standing trees, openings under fallen trees or as excavated or constructed ground nests. Cubs are usually born in January and without their fur, relying heavily on their mother. Yet they grow quickly, reaching up to 60 pounds by the end of their first summer and staying with their mother until they’re about a year and a half old and may enjoy a lifespan of over 30 years.

Michigan’s black bears are often found in heavily forested areas, but also reside in deciduous lowlands, uplands, and coniferous swamps. They continue moving into the southern Lower Peninsula but inhabit a variety of landscapes, rotating habitats with seasonal availability of food.

The size of a bear’s “home-range” in which it resides varies with its sex and age. Mothers of newborn cubs stay within smaller home-ranges of about 50 square miles which gradually increase as their cubs grow up, while male home-ranges average 335 square miles, generally overlapping with other bears.

As omnivores, black bears are opportunistic feeders, using both plant and animal matter and feed heavily in the fall to store fat for winter. They feed on wetland vegetation in the spring and  fruits and berries in summer and fall, the majority of animal matter consumed consisting of insects and larvae. Yet bears are capable of preying on most small to medium-sized animals, and even acquire foods from humans, such as fruit and vegetable crops, apiaries, bird feed and garbage, with human activity factoring into a bear’s choice of home-range.

More info: http://www.michigan.gov/dnr/0,1607,7-153-10363_10856_57530—,00.html

Explore more fascinating information on the black bears of Michigan:

 

MICHIGAN FLYING SQUIRRELS

Michigan’s most elusive mammal, the flying squirrel can be found throughout the state, yet few people have had the opportunity to view them. Entirely nocturnal, Michigan is home to two species of flying squirrels: the northern flying squirrel inhabits the northern Lower and Upper Peninsulas, while the southern flying squirrel inhabits the southern Lower Peninsula.

Flying squirrels inhabit forests, parks and other woodlands, nesting in summer and denning in winter in the cavities of mature trees.

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Michigan flying squirrel. Photo: Steve Gettle.

Although their aerial maneuverability is certainly impressive, unlike Michigan’s bats, flying squirrels are not actually capable of flight. Instead, they are equipped with loose, furry skin attached between their front and back legs, helping them glide between the trees of their wooded homes.

For a chance to see these creatures after dark, the Michigan DNR suggests using a red light to illuminate bird feeders. You may just spot a Michigan flying squirrel having a midnight meal! The red light won’t bother feeding squirrels, and allows you to see their activity after dark.

Although populations remain large, the northern flying squirrel is no longer being found in their historic ranges, while researchers record higher numbers in areas previously uninhabited by them. Researchers have found evidence suggesting the flying squirrel populations are at risk in the northern region of the Lower Peninsula, studying why flying squirrel populations in the north are decreasing while southern populations are increasing.

Michigan State University researchers are attempting to map the ranges of the two species for comparison to historical information, as part of a project funded by the Nongame Wildlife Fund.

More info: http://www.michigan.gov/dnr/0,4570,7-153-10370_12145_12205-32998–,00.html

 

MICHIGAN WOLVES

The return of wolves in Michigan is a story of successful wildlife recovery. State and federal protection of wolves enabled the comeback of the species throughout the western Great Lakes Region. In Michigan, wolves eat deer, beaver, rodents and other small mammals, but also snack on insects, nuts, berries and grasses. They are the only Canid species in Michigan that hunts in a social unit (the pack) and although wolves can go for a week without eating, when they do eat, their meal may include 20 pounds of meat at a time.

The largest member of the Canid family (wild dogs), wolves are native to Michigan and were once present in all 83 counties. Yet persecution and active predator control programs throughout the 20th century virtually eliminated wolves from Michigan, and by 1840, they could no longer be found in the southern portion of the Lower Peninsula. By 1935, they had completely disappeared from the Lower Peninsula, and had nearly vanished from the Upper Peninsula by 1960, when a state-paid bounty on wolves was finally repealed.

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Michigan wolf. Photo: Monty Sloan.

Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore was home to the last known pups born during this era, and the species remained unprotected in Michigan until the state Legislature granted full legal protection in 1965. It was then that the federal government listed the gray wolf as endangered under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) in 1973, at a time when Michigan’s wolf population was estimated at only six animals in the U.P., along with an isolated population on Isle Royale.

And it just so happened then in the 1970s an increasing number of wolf sightings and occasional encounters with motorists in the U.P. were reported. An attempt at translocating four wolves from Minnesota to the U.P. was made in 1974, but all four animals were killed by humans within eight months, before any successful reproduction could occur. The Department of Natural Resources (DNR) subsequently decided to let wolf recovery happen naturally without human intervention.

Natural emigration of wolves from Minnesota, Ontario and Wisconsin to the Upper Peninsula was first documented in the 1980s, when a pair of wolves was discovered in the central U.P. The pair had pups in 1990, and by 1992, when the population numbered an estimated 21 animals, it was clear wolves were starting to successfully rebound in the state, particularly in the U.P. due to the availability of prey and timber harvesting practices that created a prime habitat for deer.

Through continued extensive conservation efforts over the following years, the Michigan/Wisconsin combined population currently numbers a more remarkable 1,000 wolves. In light of this significant recovery of the wolf population, the state Legislature removed wolves from the state list of endangered species in April 2009, and reclassified wolves as a protected, nongame species. But in January 2012, wolves were removed by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service in Michigan, Wisconsin and Minnesota from the federal endangered species list and returned management authority to the state level. Yet in December of 2014, a federal court order returned wolves to the Federal Endangered Species list. An appeal of this decision is ongoing.

A large part of the recovery success story is also attributed to support from the public. Survey results from the mid-1990s, when wolves first began to rebound in the U.P., supported wolf recovery. Continued social acceptance of a self-sustaining wolf population is critical to maintaining the population’s “recovered” status and retaining state management authority.

More info: http://www.michigan.gov/dnr/0,4570,7-153-10370_12145_12205-32569–,00.html

MICHIGAN RED FOX

Every county in Michigan is home to red foxes! They’re highly mobile mammals, hunting alone and making shelter in fields, meadows, streams, low bush, and shrub cover and along woods and beaches. Yet you may find a red fox in your backyard; or wherever it might look for an unwanted snack!

Red foxes are members of the Canidae (dog) family, are opportunistic eaters, making a meal out of nearly anything available. They will eat insects, plants, fruits, berries, seeds, or birds, frogs and even snakes. They may also eat small mammals such as mice, rabbits, and squirrels, but could grab a bite to eat in garden vegetables, garbage or pet foods. Some foxes may cause a problem if they lose their fear of humans and learn to kill small farm animals like chickens, and so steps should be taken to ensure foxes or other wild animals are not fed by humans.

A primarily nocturnal mammal, red foxes are most active at night, commonly spotted at early morning or late evening. However, you could stumble upon a red fox during the day, especially in open areas─but from a distance, their sleek physique may have you second guessing if you saw a cat!

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Michigan red fox. Photo: Koryos.

They may look familiar to your dog, but slender and smaller, with long, bushy tails over 2 feet long. Because their fur makes them look bigger, red foxes are lighter than they may appear. The titular red color accents their faces and tops of their heads, with orange or yellow fur on their necks. Their white-tipped tails are outlined with black fur, as well as their ear tips. A red fox is gloved with dark black or brown paws, while the insides of theirs ears, chest, and belly are creamy white.

A fox likes to make its shelter in well-drained, dry areas, and can be found in the middle of fields, on woodland edges, ridges, or any place which provides shelter. Fox families burrow in the ground to make a “den” with two entrances, usually by excavating old woodchuck or badger holes. This place is where they can safely raise their young, and if they wish, share their den with a second family.

More info: http://www.michigan.gov/dnr/0,4570,7-153-10370_12145_12205-61328–,00.html

 

MICHIGAN COYOTE

Coyotes are found throughout Michigan and have dispersed into southern Michigan without assistance from the DNR. Coyotes are found in rural to urban areas and are quite common but extremely good at remaining unnoticed by humans, even while living in close proximity.

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Michigan coyote. Photo: Perry Backus.

Coyotes can be difficult to distinguish from a medium sized German shepherd dog from a distance. There is wide variation in the coyote’s color, but generally their upper body is yellowish gray, and the fur covering the throat and belly is white to cream color. The coyote’s ears are pointed and stand erect, unlike the ears of domestic dogs that often droop. When observed running, coyotes carry their bushy, black tipped tail below the level of their back, in comparison to wolves that carry their tail in a horizontal position while running.

This member of the dog family is extremely adaptable and survives in virtually all habitat types common in Michigan. They are most abundant in areas where adequate food, cover, and water are available. The size of a coyote’s home range depends on the food and cover resources available and on the number of other coyotes in an area, but it generally averages between 8 and 12 square miles. Mated pairs and 4 to 7 pups occupy the home range during the spring and summer seasons in Michigan.

People are most likely to see coyotes during their breeding period, which occurs in Michigan from mid-January into March. As fall approaches, pups begin dispersing from the den site to establish home ranges of their own. These young dispersing animals sometimes wander into urban areas. Coyotes are active day and night; however, peaks in activity occur at sunrise and sunset. Coyotes generally feed at night. They are opportunistic and will eat almost anything available. Small mammals such as mice, voles, shrews, rabbits, hares, and squirrels are preferred foods, but will also eat fruits, plants, birds, and snakes. In urban areas, coyotes are attracted to garbage, garden vegetables, and pet foods.

More info: http://www.michigan.gov/dnr/0,4570,7-153-10370_12145_12205-60378–,00.html

 

MICHIGAN MOOSE

Moose are native to Michigan and occurred throughout nearly the entire state prior to European settlement. Moose disappeared from the Lower Peninsula in the 1890s, and only a few scattered individuals remain in the Upper Peninsula.

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Michigan moose. Photo: Al Hikes.

Moose are the largest members of the deer family and the tallest mammal in North America ranging from 5-7 feet. Their massive bodies can weigh up to 725 to 1,100 pounds! The moose’s coloration can vary from grayish- or reddish-brown to the occasional all-black individual.

Since moose prefer colder climates, they only live in areas that have seasonal snow cover. Boreal forests with shrubby growth and immature trees along the cedar swamps, marshes, and alder-willow thickets near waterways are popular places to find moose.

Moose is an Algonquin term that means “twig eater”. They tend to graze on leaves, bark, pine cones, twigs, and buds of aspen, maple, and birch trees and shrubs. They also eat aquatic plants like water lilies, rushes, arrowheads, and horsetails.

More info: http://www.michigan.gov/dnr/0,1607,7-153-10370_12145_58476—,00.html

 

MICHIGAN COUGAR

Michigan cougars, also called mountain lions, were originally native to Michigan, but were extirpated from Michigan around the turn of the century. Over the past few years, numerous cougar sighting reports have been received from various locations throughout the state. Today the species in Michigan is listed as endangered and is protected under state law.

Cougars are the second largest cat in North America─they vary between 5-9 feet long and can weigh up to 150-200 pounds. Unlike other big cats, however, the cougar cannot roar. Instead, the large feline purrs like a house cat.

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Michigan cougar. Photo: Eric Pickhartz.

Inhabiting various ecosystems from mountains to deserts to sea-level, they make their home anywhere there is shelter and prey. Cougars are primarily nocturnal although they can be active during the day. They are solitary and secretive animals that prefer to hunt from cover. Generally they prey on deer but also feed on smaller animals if necessary, including domestic animals and livestock. Cougars have even been known to eat insects.

More info: http://www.michigan.gov/dnr/0,1607,7-153-10370_12145_43573—,00.html

Check out the Michigan DNR website to find programs near you celebrating and teaching about Michigan’s great mammals, with activities like hikes, animal tracking programs, and more.

 

Happy National Pollinator Week

By Eugene Kutz, MNA Intern

This year, the Michigan Nature Association is recognizing one decade of National Pollinator Week, put into place by the U.S. Senate to recognize the critical role pollinators have in ecosystem health and agriculture, and to recognize “the value of partnership efforts to increase awareness about pollinators and support for protecting and sustaining pollinators.”

pollinator weekThe U.S. Department of Agriculture and the U.S. Department of the Interior have designated June 19-25 as National Pollinator Week in 2017 ─ a statement on how critical pollinators are to food production and ecosystems.

National Pollinator Week is a time to share the news about the need for healthy pollinator populations (bees, birds, butterflies, bats and beetles) and what can be done to protect them. This important awareness week addresses the devastating effects that declining pollinator populations will continue to have on agriculture and ecosystems that we all rely on.

The National Pollinator Week is now celebrated and recognized by countries across the globe, where many are celebrating healthy ecosystems and the services provided by pollinators and their positive effect on all of our lives, from supporting wildlife to keeping watersheds healthy.

For more information, visit The Pollinator Partnership, the largest non-profit dedicated exclusively to promoting the health of pollinators through conservation, education, and research.

To see a list of events taking place in Michigan this week, check out http://www.pollinator.org/pollinatorweek/events#Michigan:

Michigan BeePalooza 2017 bumble
6/18/2017, 1:00 PM
1066 Bogue Street East Lansing, 48824
“A fun afternoon event on Father’s Day at the MSU Demonstration Gardens in East Lansing, with interactive educational displays about the Bees of Michigan, beekeeping, bee conservation for homeowners, bumble bee ecology, face painting, and more!”
https://www.facebook.com/events/712867558881877 ; http://www.beepalooza.org

Pollinator Day 2017
6/24/2017, 12:00 PM
34051 Ryan Road, Sterling Heights, 48310
“Eckert’s Greenhouse is hosting an Annual Pollinator Day! Go to three different stations to learn about the importance of Butterflies, Bees, Birds and Bats! Let us help you make a friendly pollinator garden from our wide variety of annuals and perennials.” http://www.eckertsgreenhouse.com/specials–events.html

Free Seminar: Create A Garden To Attract Pollinators
6/24/2017, 10:00 AM
English Gardens, West Bloomfield, 48322
“Our experts will share tips on creating a garden that pollinators will love to call home.” http://www.englishgardens.com/events/create-a-garden-to-attract-pollinators/
Contact information: ewinger@englishgardens.com

Stewardship Workday At Bluffs Nature Area
6/24/2017 9:00 AM
222 Sunset Rd, Ann Arbor, 48103
“Bluffs Nature Area offers trails for bikers, walkers and runners along with interesting views of the river and a small hidden prairie. Volunteers are needed to pull invasive plants that provide little food for wildlife and crowd out native wildflowers.”
www.a2gov.org/NAP; 734.794.6627; NAP@a2gov.org

For a complete look at all National Pollinator Week events in the U.S. this week take a look at this map: http://pollinator.org/npw_events.htm.

 

 

3rd Edition of Walking Paths Release

Order Now! 
3rd Edition of Walking Paths & Protected Areas of the Keweenaw

Walking Paths cover

Walking Paths & Protected Areas of the Keweenaw is a guide that features publicly accessible nature and wildlife sanctuaries, preserves, and parks located in Houghton and Keweenaw Counties on Michigan’s Keweenaw Peninsula that have been protected through citizen action and private initiative.

These special places provide both residents and visitors the opportunity to encounter a variety of native habitats, interesting plant species, and unique geological features in this nothernmost part of Michigan, as well as a glimpse of Michigan before European settlement and the nineteenth century copper boom. These are places where natural processes can unfold with minimal human interruption or alteration.

List of Sanctuaries in Walking Paths 3rd Ed. 2


Reserve Your Copy Before It’s Available In Stores!

Reserve your copy on our website,
calling 866-223-2231 or emailing
michigannature@michigannature.org.

Spring 2017 Michigan Nature Magazine

MNA is no stranger to the fight to protect vulnerable species. For 65 years MNA has worked hard to secure and restore habitat and manage lands so rare plants and animals have a chance. A new endangered species listing hits hard even when it comes with the good news that federal protections will be put in place to help recover the species.

It also hits hard because of the news from Washington D.C. and Lansing about proposed deep cuts to programs that protect these vulnerable species.

The current political climate underscores the foresight of MNA’s founders. 65 years ago, a small group of spirited individuals took matters into their own hands and established an organization to do what they felt government was ignoring. How many more endangered species listings would there be without groups like MNA?

So today when so many headlines bring dismay, you only need to open the pages of Michigan Nature to find some really terrific stories of great work to protect our natural heritage. Stories made possible by people who deeply care and give from the heart – landowners, members, donors, volunteers and you.

Partnerships and collaboration are key. If the last 65 years have taught us anything, they’ve taught us that we cannot do it alone.

MNA’s mission brings people together so we can build a brighter future. We have been doing so for 65 years and will continue to do so for the next 65 years and beyond. Thank you for doing your part.

Spring 17 magazine cover

7th Annual Photo Contest Now Open!

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Calling all nature enthusiasts! Do you love nature photography? Then the Michigan Nature Association is looking to showcase your photos in the 7th Annual Photo Contest!

Winners will be featured on the MNA website and will be used in upcoming issues of Michigan Nature magazine. Visit the Photo Contest Gallery to see last year’s winners.

Photos can be taken anywhere in the state of Michigan, and should highlight Michigan’s natural beauty in any way. Photos will be judged in three categories: Flora & Fauna, Landscapes, and People in Nature.

To enter, download and fill out the 2017 Photo Contest Entry Form.
Photos and completed forms can be emailed to Jess at jfoxen@michigannature.org or mailed on a CD or flashdrive to the MNA office.

Entries must be received by September 1, 2017.

All photos must be:

  • taken in the state of Michigan.
  • in one of the three categories.
  • submitted with a filled-out entry form.
  • submitted as a jpg, tif or gif file (photo quality of 300 dpi is highly preferred).
  • received no later than September 1, 2017.

We look forward to seeing your favorite photos of nature and some of Michigan’s best flora, fauna, and landscapes through your lens!

Endangered Species Day – A Celebration of Species Protection and a Day of Action

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By Eugene Kutz, MNA Intern

An exciting day for species conservation, the 12th annual Endangered Species Day is today, May 19. This day provides an opportunity for people to learn everyday actions they can take to help protect our nation’s endangered species. Today will facilitate recognition of the extensive efforts currently in place to protect our nation’s endangered and threatened species and their habitats.

Michigan is home to fourteen endangered and twelve threatened species, comprised of eight plant species (seven threatened, one endangered) and nineteen animals (six threatened, thirteen endangered). Of these lists, two species, the piping plover and the Poweshiek skipperling, have been designated with habitats in critical condition. For a list of all Michigan Federally-listed Threatened, Endangered, Proposed, and Candidate Species, follow the link to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Services: https://www.fws.gov/midwest/endangered/lists/michigan-spp.html

Spearheaded by the National Wildlife Federation, the Endangered Species Day was established in 2006 after the United States Senate unanimously passed a resolution designating a day to encourage the public to become educated about, and aware of, the current threats to species and the success stories in species recovery.

Plants and animals near extinction were first provided security in the Endangered Species Act, signed into law by Congress in 1973. In a conservation win, only 9 of out of 1,800 species listed as endangered were declared extinct since the implementation of the Act. Having paved the road for the Endangered Species Day, the Act declared the importance of protecting endangered species and containing extinction prevention for hundreds of species, including the bald eagle, grizzly bear and the Florida panther.

Now Endangered Species Day is recognized across the nation and in events at schools, libraries, museums, zoos, aquariums, botanical gardens, businesses and community groups alike. It also provides the opportunity for promoting all worldwide species conservation efforts.

Butterfly Run logoThis Saturday, May 20, join the Michigan Nature Association for its third annual Karner Blue Butterfly Family Fun Run & 5K at Millennium Park in Grand Rapids, as part of the Race for Michigan Nature, a statewide series of Family Fun Runs & 5Ks stretching from Belle Isle in Detroit to Marquette in the U.P.

Each race spotlights one of Michigan’s rarest species and helps promote the importance of protecting Michigan’s remaining natural areas. This event will help raise awareness for endangered species and habitat conservation efforts. Sign up at https://runsignup.com/Race/MI/Walker/KarnerBlueButterflyRun.

2017 Race for Michigan Nature to Benefit Endangered Species

5K Race Banner for social media

Sign up today! 
Join MNA in the Race for Michigan Nature series across the state

Enjoy the beautiful outdoors and run, walk, or jog along the park trails in select cities across Michigan with the Michigan Nature Association!

MNA’s statewide Race for Michigan Nature series of Family Fun Runs & 5Ks stretches from Belle Isle in Detroit to Marquette in the U.P. The races are  endorsed by the Governor’s Council on Physical Fitness, Health and Sports and qualify for the Pure Michigan Challenge.

The Family Fun Runs & 5Ks will promote efforts to preserve habitat for threatened and endangered species throughout Michigan.

Register Today

Bring the whole family! The Kids Fun Run will be a 1 mile race 30 minutes prior to the 5K.

Kids 1 Mile Fun Run: $10
5K Run/Walk: Early registration is just $25 ($30 day-of).

Participants will receive a commemorative Run t-shirt and a finisher medal!
Prizes for the top male and female runners.

If you have any questions please call Jess at
866-223-2231 or email her at jfoxen@michigannature.org.

We hope to see you there!

Find a race in your area!

​Karner Blue Butterfly Family Fun Run & 5K
Saturday, May 20
Millennium Park, Grand Rapids
Register!

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Moose on the Loose Family Fun Run & 5K
Saturday, August 26
Presque Isle Park, Marquette
Register!

Moose 5K logo

Rattlesnake Family Fun Run & 5K
Sunday, September 17
Paint Creek Trail, Rochester
Register!

Rattlesnake Run 5K logo - 300 dpi

Turtle Family Fun Run & 5K
Sunday, September 24
Gallup Park, Ann Arbor
Register!

Turtle Run 5K logo - 300 dpi

Monarch March Family Fun Run & 5K
Sunday, October 1
Mayor’s Riverfront Park, Kalamazoo
Register!

Monarch March 5K logo - 300 dpi

Sturgeon Sprint Family Fun Run & 5K
Sunday, October 8
Belle Isle Park, Detroit
Register!

Sturgeon Logo